Tuesday, September 6, 2005

history of kediri

Kediri ws a Hindu kingdom based in East Java from 1045 to 1221.

In 1045 Airlangga divided Kahuripan into two kingdoms, Janggala (based on cntemporary Malang) and Kediri, abdicates in favour of his sons to live the life of an ascetic. He passed away four years later. In 1068, Virarajendra, the Chola king of Coromandel, conquered Kedah from Srivijaya. The Cholas continued a series of raids and conquests throughout what is now Indonesia and Malaysia for the next 20 years. Although the Chola invasion was ultimately unsuccessful, it gravely weakened the Srivijayan hegemony and enabled the formation of regional kingdoms based, like Kediri, on agriculture rather than trade

Kediri collected spices from tributaries in southern Kalimantan and the Maluku Islands, known to the West as the Spice Islands or Moluccas. Indian and Southeast Asian merchants among others then transported the spices to Mediterranean and Chinese markets by way of the Spice Route that linked a chain of ports from the Indian Ocean to southern China. In 1117 Kamesvara became king of Kediri and ruled until 1130. He married a princess of Janggala and reunited the two kingdoms founded by Airlangga.

In 1135 Ratu Joyoboyo acceded to the throne of Kediri and ruled until 1157. Joyoboyo's reign was a golden age of Old Javanese literature. The Prelambang Joyoboyo, a prophetic book ascribed to Joyoboyo, predicted that Indonesia would be ruled by a white race for a long time, then a yellow race for a short time, then be independent. The Joyoboyo prophecies also mention the Ratu Adil, the Just Prince, a recurring figure in Javanese foklore. Many other literary works were produced, including Bharatajuddha Kakawin, a Javanese version of the Mahabharata by Mpu Sedah and his brother Mpu Panuluh. This work was published in 1157. During the reign, Ternate was a vassal state of Kediri.

Kediri fell in 1221 when Ken Angrok, the lord of Tumapel, defeated the forces of Kediri at the Battle of Genter and founded the new kingdom of Singhasari.